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Coral Island.rar



Love Rarotonga. Went in 2019 for a week using the now-dead LAX-RAR ANZ flight. You're correct about the hotel situation, but the VRBO situation is quite good. I still miss having a beer on the back porch, a literal stone's throw from the beautiful, coral-filled lagoon. A good bit cheaper than nearby French Polynesia...and in English too!




Coral Island.rar


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While the causes and trajectories of coral reef degradation have been documented for decades (Baker, Glynn & Riegl, 2008; Bruckner & Hill, 2009; Gardner et al., 2003; Hughes, 1994; Pandolfi et al., 2003), studies predict that coral reefs worldwide will continue to deteriorate, primarily due to thermal-driven coral bleaching plus ocean and coastal acidification (Eakin et al., 2010; Frieler et al., 2013; Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2007; Van Hooidonk et al., 2014). Ocean acidification results from increasing storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, lowering the aragonite saturation state and reducing seawater pH. Coastal acidification caused by eutrophication, coastal upwelling and freshwater inflow also reduces seawater pH and aragonite saturation state. Both of these processes can slow coral growth and contribute to chemical dissolution of reefs (Comeau et al., 2014; Eyre et al., 2018). Reefs in the Florida Keys are already being affected by coastal acidification, likely driven by nutrient inputs resulting in seasonal dissolution of carbonate sediments (Muehllehner et al., 2016) that may be accounting for approximately 15% of seafloor elevation loss in the Upper Florida Keys (Yates et al., 2017). Solar radiation and high water temperatures cause coral bleaching that has resulted in extensive coral mortality as well as predisposing the survivors to coral disease (Miller et al., 2009; Muller et al., 2008; Rogers et al., 2009; Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1990). Coral diseases continue to emerge, including Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease (SCTLD) which has severely impacted the Florida reef tract since 2014 and is now spreading to the wider Caribbean basin (Precht et al., 2016; Walton, Hayes & Gilliam, 2018; Weil et al., 2019).


While often found near coral reefs, mangrove systems are not usually thought of as suitable habitats for coral recruitment and growth because of high sedimentation rates, lack of suitable substratum, and inadequate water quality. Further, ecological surveys of Florida mangroves from the 1930s to 1980s made no mention of the presence of corals when detailing associated fauna (Davis, 1940; Odum, McIvor & Smith, 1982). However, a number of recent studies have identified several locations around the world with corals growing on or near mangrove prop roots (Bengtsson et al., 2019; Camp et al., 2019, 2017; Hernández-Fernández, 2015; Macintyre et al., 2000; Rogers, 2009, 2017; Scavo Lord et al., 2020). In some of these habitats, mangroves are sheltering corals even in the face of extreme variability in pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature, resulting in lower incidences of bleaching and high rates of recovery (Camp et al., 2019, 2017; Yates et al., 2014). The mangrove-canopy shading reduces light stress and a combination of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes in some of these mangrove-coral habitats can locally buffer pH (Yates et al., 2014).


Yellow lines indicate shoreline and channels surveyed. Red points labeled P1, P2, and P3 indicate prop-root-coral sites described in Table 1. Blue points labeled C1, C2, C3 and C4 indicate channel-coral sites described in Table 1. Map image is the intellectual property of Esri and is used herein under license. Copyright 2019 Esri and its licensors. All rights reserved.


Sites indicate locations of channel corals (C) and prop-root corals (P) as depicted in Fig. 4. Shaded cells indicate revisits to a site at a different date/time. Brackets contain the number of coral colonies observed per species at a given site.


Differences between Lower Keys channel-coral habitats and prop-root-coral habitats were tested based on the data in Table 2. The only environmental variable that was significantly different was temperature and that can be attributed to the differences between days and sampling times, whereby more prop-root-coral sites were visited in the afternoon or were visited on 11 January, when surface-water temperatures were above 22 C. Both prop-root- and channel-coral habitats in the Lower Keys occurred in inland tidal channels and canals, so it is not unexpected that major differences were not detected among measured environmental parameters at each type of site.


Data from channel-coral habitats are shown in blue open circles, from prop-root-habitat in closed red circles, and from reference (non-coral) sites with gray asterisks. All of the data from the Upper Keys field surveys in October 2019 are indicated by the gray circle. Open-water reference samples, that is, Atlantic, Sugarloaf Sound, or the ocean-side entrance to a mangrove channel, are indicated by the dashed circle.


Could these mangrove-coral habitats be functioning as refugia? We suggest the possibility exists for these environments to be (i) thermal refugia (via microclimate insulation against cold and shading against heat), (ii) acidification refugia (via buffering pH), (iii) oxidative stress refugia (via shading and mangrove antioxidants), (iv) disease refugia (via hydrographic transmission limitation of the channels), (v) storm refugia (inland tidal creeks and channels may be more protected from heavy wave action and sedimentation), or (vi) various combinations thereof. Additional examination is required to determine whether these Florida Keys mangrove-coral habitats could offer specific protection for corals. If so, these habitats may serve as temporary or longer-term nurseries to support growth and acclimation of coral outplants or natural laboratories to test survival of different coral genotypes.


The Cook Islands are one of the South Pacific's hidden gems, boasting stunning beaches, spectacular coral reefs and a laidback island lifestyle. Explore the island's bountiful natural beauty with our great range of Cook Islands flights.


The fear was justified. The east coast of Barbados is rocky, bounded by coral reefs, and pounded by surf. The Washingtons were lucky that the crew saw the island in the night, or else Success might have been driven onto the reefs and destroyed. Success avoided these misfortunes, rounded the south end of Barbados, and anchored in Carlisle Bay later on November 2.


Barbados is a small coral island in the southeastern Caribbean. The island is roughly pear-shaped, 21 miles from north to south and 14 miles across at the widest point. But its historical importance is not proportional to its size. The English settled the island in 1627, just eight years after the Pilgrims landed in Plymouth. In the 1650s the colonists and enslaved workers began to cultivate sugar cane, which soon made the island's leading planters spectacularly-- even decadently-- rich. Barbados was one of Britain's most precious colonial possessions. Bridgetown-- where the Washingtons landed-- was one of the most populous cities in British American and the largest urban area George Washington had ever seen. Williamsburg, the largest town in Virginia, was a mere village by comparison.


\r\n\tLocated on the island of Rarotonga, Avarua is the capital of the Cook Islands. It's home to the island's only international airport and is where most travellers enter the country.\r\n\r\n\tOne of the town's most interesting landmarks is a shipwreck. Situated in its waters is the SS Maitai that crashed into the offshore reef in 1916.\r\n\r\n\tOther highlights include the Cook Islands Library and Museum Society. It houses a collection of rare books on the Pacific islands and has displays on the cultural history of the Cook Islands.\r\n\r\n\tDuring the evenings you can attend the buzzing Punanga Nui Outdoor Market. You'll find mountains of fresh fruit, fragrant flowers, crafts and hand-made clothes.\r\n\r\n\tAitutaki\r\n\r\n\tArutanga is the main settlement on Aitutaki. While it's not a full-blown metropolis, it's one of the most-visited destinations in the Cook Islands.\r\n\r\n\tIts main attraction is an 1828 Christian Church. It's the oldest on the islands and is revered for its beautiful glass windows and wooden accents.\r\n\r\n\tAtiu\r\n\r\n\tAtiu is the third largest and third most visited destination in the Cook Islands. With only about 50 visitors each week, it's a haven for travellers that want to escape the crowds and experience an island with a more traditional edge.\r\n\r\n\tAtiu may be half the size of Rarotonga, but it's home to more bird species than any of the other islands, including some of the world's rarest.\r\n\r\n\tIt's also the Cook's eco-capital with plenty of environmentally-friendly hotels and the best eco-tours in the country. Plus there are over 28 untouched beaches to explore and while they are small, you'll have them all to yourself.\r\n","tabcontent2":"\r\n\tTop Attractions in The Cook Islands\r\n\r\n\tMuri Lagoon\r\n\r\n\tMuri Lagoon is one of the most beautiful beaches on the island of Rarotonga. Its crystal clear water is full of tropical fish and a beautiful coral reef. It's an ideal destination for travellers who want to spend their day lounging on the beach and snorkelling through the lagoon.\r\n\r\n\tIf you want something a bit more active, there's a range of watersports to choose from. You can either bring your own equipment or rent what you need from the nearby shops.\r\n\r\n\tAnd once you're done soaking up your dose of vitamin D, there are a few nearby restaurants to visit for lunch or dinner.\r\n\r\n\tCross Island Walk\r\n\r\n\tIf you want to spend an afternoon exploring Rarotonga's natural beauty, go on the Cross Island Walk. It will take you through some of the island's most dramatic scenery, stretching from the north coast to the south via Wigmore's Falls.\r\n\r\n\tThe hike takes about four hours to complete, and you'll need to pack plenty of drinking water and mosquito repellent. The Cross Island Walk is particularly beautiful after a rainstorm when the cascades are full, and the vegetation is green and lush.\r\n\r\n\tWhile the walk is possible to do by yourself, it is recommended to hire a guide. If you want to do it independently, start the hike from the north to avoid getting lost and follow the orange track markers carefully.\r\n\r\n\tTitikaveka Beach\r\n\r\n\tTitikaveka Beach is one of the best snorkelling spots on Rarotonga. The beach is near a lagoon that's full of fish and beautiful blue starfish. In fact, the waters here are often so clear that you don't even need a snorkel to gaze at its colourful inhabitants.\r\n\r\n\tBesides the marine life, the beach is great for kayaking. And if you want to see the lagoon at its best, plan your visit for sunset. You'll get amazing photos and watch the day end in a spectacular fashion.\r\n\r\n\tThe nearby village is also worth a stop. It's home to the coral stone Cook Islands Christian Church that was built in 1841.\r\n\r\n\tAroa Beach and Marine Reserve\r\n\r\n\tLocated on an outlying reef on Rarotonga island, Aroa is a top diving and snorkelling destination. It's a natural breeding ground for a plethora of fish including sea bream, octopi, clams, moray eels and butterfly eels.\r\n\r\n\tThe lagoon is closed off to motorised boats, making it ideal for snorkelling with small children. You can either bring your own gear or sign up for tours at the dive centre. Just be careful not to step on any of the coral while snorkelling.\r\n\r\n\tKayaking is also another popular activity here, thanks to the calm waters. Once you've had your fill of exploring the depths of the ocean, unwind on the pristine beach.\r\n\r\n\tMaungatapu\r\n\r\n\tMaungatapu is the highest point on the island of Aitutaki. It's the only bit of hiking you can do in the region and takes about 30 minutes to summit.\r\n\r\n\tOnce at the top, you'll have spectacular panoramic views over the blue lagoon and lush landscape.\r\n\r\n\tTo find the start of the hike, go to Paradise Cove. There is a sign here that marks the beginning of the trailhead. You can also get free maps anywhere on Aitutaki.\r\n\r\n\tJust make sure you pack enough water, insect repellent and come prepared with a fully charged camera.\r\n","tabcontent3":"\r\n\tFive Things First Time Travellers To The Cook Islands Should Know\r\n\r\n\t\r\n\t\tThe internet is expensive. Due to the Cook Islands being located in the middle of the ocean, getting online isn't cheap. Either stay offline during your visit or fork out NZD 50 for one gigabyte. Another option would be to buy chunks of minutes: 30 minutes for NZD 6 or 90 minutes for NZD 12.\r\n\t\r\n\t\tGetting around by bus isn't cheap either. Unlike its neighbouring island nations, a bus trip is going to put a small dent in your budget. Single rides cost NZD 5 while returns are NZD 8. You'll also need to fork out NZD 2 per bag.\r\n\t\r\n\t\tThe currency in the Cook Islands is the New Zealand dollar. You may occasionally be given your change in Cook Islands scents and dollars. If that does happen, make sure to spend them all as they can't be exchanged anywhere else in the world.\r\n\t\r\n\t\tTipping is not customary in the Cook Islands. In fact, it can be seen as offensive. This is because the Polynesians view it as receiving something for nothing and believe they owe you something in return.\r\n\t\r\n\t\tThe official language in the Cook Islands is Cook Islands Maori. However, due to tourism, most locals speak English, and you shouldn't have much of a language barrier to overcome.\r\n\r\n\r\n\tBest Time To Visit The Cook Islands\r\n\r\n\tWhile the Cook Islands are a year-round destination, the best time to visit is during the drier months. From June to August, temperatures are a comfortable 25\u00b0C, and the humidity is low. But it is the island's high season, and you can expect high flight prices and steep hotel rates.\r\n\r\n\tIf you want to shave off a couple of dollars, try to book your holiday in the shoulder months. From April to May and September to October, you'll still get the same great weather, but with fewer crowds and better prices.\r\n\r\n\tWhile there isn't so much of an off-season for the Cook Islands, the rainy season does see a slum in tourism numbers. From December to March, hurricanes and rainstorms are common. Luckily, the outbursts are short and won't keep you inside the whole day. Plus, if you handle the less than perfect weather you'll be rewarded with low hotel rates and cheap flights.\r\n\r\n\tThe one thing you will need to keep in mind though is the holiday season. Christmas and New Year see an influx of locals returning from abroad as well as holidaymakers. Make sure you book your flights and accommodation well in advance to avoid the price spikes.\r\n","tabcontent4":"\r\n\tMajor International Airports in The Cook Islands\r\n\r\n\t\r\n\t\tRarotonga International Airport\r\n\r\n","tabcontent1_pictures":"[\"img\":\"\/site\/images\/dfdata\/DEFAULT_Car hire Text.jpg\",\"url\":\"https:\/\/www.webjet.com.au\/car-hire\/\",\"img\":\"\/site\/images\/dfdata\/DEFAULT_Hotels Text.jpg\",\"url\":\"https:\/\/hotels.webjet.com.au\/accommodation\/\",\"img\":\"\/site\/images\/dfdata\/DEFAULT_Packages Text.jpg\",\"url\":\"https:\/\/packages.webjet.com.au\/\",\"img\":\"\/site\/images\/dfdata\/DEFAULT_Exclusives.jpg\",\"url\":\"https:\/\/exclusives.webjet.com.au\/deals\/special-deals\/\"]","timezone":"Pacific\/Rarotonga","currency_code":"NZD","travel_duration":null,"nearby_destinations":"[\"val\":\"\/flights\/new-zealand\/\",\"txt\":\"New Zealand\",\"val\":\"\/flights\/samoa\/\",\"txt\":\"Samoa\",\"val\":\"\/flights\/mexico\/\",\"txt\":\"Mexico\",\"val\":\"\/flights\/french-polynesia\/\",\"txt\":\"French Polynesia\",\"val\":\"\/flights\/australia\/\",\"txt\":\"Australia\"]","flyto_destinations":"[]","departure_cities":"[]","city_name":"Rarotonga","continent_code":"OC","creator":"133","last_update":"125","created_at":null,"updated_at":"2019-10-23 14:21:56","page_heading":"","schema_script":"\n \"@context\": \"http:\/\/schema.org\/\",\n \"@type\": \"Product\",\n \"name\": \"Cheap Flights to ##COUNTRY##\",\n \"image\": \"https:\/\/www.webjet.com.au\/site\/images\/webjet-australia.jpg\",\n \"description\": \"##DESCRIPTION##\",\n \"brand\": \"Webjet\"##PRICESECTION##\n","other_schema":null,"rate":"1.071238","cheapestDeal":[]}; window.temperature_info = []; window.rainfall_info = []; window.travel_duration = []; window.nearby_destinations = ["val":"/flights/new-zealand/","txt":"New Zealand","val":"/flights/samoa/","txt":"Samoa","val":"/flights/mexico/","txt":"Mexico","val":"/flights/french-polynesia/","txt":"French Polynesia","val":"/flights/australia/","txt":"Australia"]; window.flyto_destinations = []; window.slider_cities = []; window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer []; var dataLayerInfo = event: 'page-ready', currency: 'AUD', environment: 'production', language: 'en-AU', pageCategory: 'country', product: 'flights', // or flights, cars, hotels, insurance siteType: 'responsive', platform: 'rocketlab-au' // or rocketlab-nz, rocketlab-investor ; dataLayer.push(dataLayerInfo); // set hero image function heroimage_loaderror() // also check default picture code above $('.heroimg img').attr('src', ' '); ; var GLOBAL_NABDEFURL = ' '; var nabRewardsUrl = GLOBAL_NABDEFURL;!function(a,b)"use strict"; function c(a)var c = b.getElementsByTagName("script")[0], d = b.createElement("script");d.async = !0, d.defer = !0, d.src = a, c.parentNode.insertBefore(d, c) c(a)(nabRewardsUrl, document); .modal-open #NAB-error-modal.modal.in.center display: flex !important; align-items: center; .modal-open #NAB-error-modal.modal overflow-x: hidden; overflow-y: auto; .NAB-error.center text-align: center; .NAB-error.modal position: fixed; top: 0; right: 0; bottom: 0; left: 0; z-index: 1050; display: none; overflow: hidden; -webkit-overflow-scrolling: touch; outline: 0; .NAB-error .modal-dialog .modal-header .close font-weight: normal; position: absolute; top: 0; right: 0; padding: 12px; margin: 0; color: #999999; border-radius: 3px; opacity: 1; float: right; line-height: 1; text-shadow: 0 1px 0 #fff; font-size: 16px; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; .NAB-error .modal-dialog .modal-header .title margin: 0 36px 0 0!important; overflow: hidden; white-space: nowrap; text-overflow: ellipsis; text-align: left; color: #DC140A; font-size: 24px; line-height: 130%; font-weight: 700; -webkit-margin-before: 0.67em; -webkit-margin-after: 0.67em; -webkit-margin-start: 0px; -webkit-margin-end: 0px; display: block; Show modal in Center NAB Rewards error An error occured while retrieving your NAB Rewards details. 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